Post-Exercise Nutrition 101

Protein v2

Not consuming the appropriate nutrition post-exercise can leave training gains on the table and impair exercise recovery. Is your post-exercise nutrition strategy bringing you closer to success or failure?

The Why

Long-term athletic development is a complex endeavor; genetics [51, 52], psychological skills [53, 54], sport-specific expertise [55-59], nutrition [60, 61], and physiological adaptations to exercise [62-65] all contribute in some way. During intense training, your body uses important muscle components like protein, glycogen (carbohydrate stored inside muscle), and water. In most exercise situations, muscle protein, glycogen, and water are critical for the muscles to work effectively. If these muscle components are utilized during exercise and aren’t replaced, your next performance will suffer [68-72]. The main goal of post-exercise nutrition is to give your body what it needs to quickly begin the muscle re-building process. However, post-exercise recovery from one training session isn’t enough; long-term training adaptations and athletic improvements do not result from the recovery from a single exercise or training session alone, but rather by the cumulative recoveries from multiple training bouts [66-68]. In other words, you need to consistently give your body the nutrition it needs to see long-term training gains.

The What and When

Previous research suggests that ingesting a combination of carbohydrates and protein post-exercise facilitates exercise recovery and enhances athletic performance [28-34, 40, 47, 87]. In fact, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Society for Sports Nutrition (ISSN) all agree on this notion [34]. Although a recent review suggested that muscle gains (i.e. hypertrophy) may be more strongly associated with total daily protein intake than the timing of post-exercise nutrition [36], the totality of evidence suggests that a combination of protein and carbohydrate should be consumed soon after exercise to optimize training adaptations. Even if nutrient timing isn’t as important as once thought, you put yourself in a favorable position by initiating the muscle recovery process sooner, rather than later. Your specific post-exercise requirements will depend on the type, duration, and intensity of your exercise. This is particularly true for carbohydrate; more longer, more intense exercise requires more carbohydrate to recover fully [84, 85]. If interested, you can check out your personalized post-exercise recovery needs using our Nutrition Calculator.

Protein Type Matters

The type of protein consumed post-exercise matters; your ability to recover from exercise and see positive long-term training adaptations can be affected by the type of protein consumed [37-42, 48-50]. In young, healthy males who regularly trained using resistance exercise, a group of researchers found that consumption of whey protein elicits a more favorable response in muscle, both at rest and post-exercise, compared with casein and soy protein [48]. In fact, at rest, whey was 93% and 18% more effective than casein and soy, respectively. After resistance exercise, whey was a whopping 122% and 31% more effective than casein and soy, respectively [48]. Another group of researchers observed greater gains in lean body mass and muscle hypertrophy with post-exercise ingestion of fat-free milk compared with soy post-exercise during 12 weeks of resistance training [49]. In a comprehensive review, a research group led by Stuart Phillips determined that ingestion of whey, soy, and milk proteins resulted in greater muscle gains (i.e. hypertrophy) than carbohydrate alone in young adults [50]. Also, they found that whey proteins were most effective; they support muscle gains more than soy and milk proteins [50]. Overall, research has shown that products containing animal and dairy-based proteins contain the highest percentage of essential amino acids (EAAs; amino acids that must be obtained from the diet) and result in more favorable training responses when compared to vegetarian options [86].

MilkSoy
Consistent Post-exercise Milk vs. Soy Protein Affects Long-Term Training Adaptations

Bonus: How to Split Up Daily Protein

In addition to post-exercise protein type, the timing of protein consumption appears to be an important factor for exercise recovery [43-46]. Overnight post-exercise recovery was enhanced when active men consumed 40 grams of casein protein immediately before bed [44]. Other researchers have found pre-sleep protein to be beneficial for increasing muscle protein synthesis (MPS), muscle recovery, body composition, and metabolism [88-91].

What about during the day? Researchers investigated how consuming 80 grams of whey protein in different doses throughout the day affected recovery in healthy, resistance-trained males [45]. The researchers found that consuming 4 servings x 20 grams of protein every 3 hours was more effective at stimulating muscle protein synthesis than consuming 8 servings × 10 grams every 1.5 hours or 2 servings × 40 grams every 6 hours [45]. It should be noted that the differences between dosing strategies were not drastic and the research is limited in this area.

Timing
Daily Protein Intake Distribution Affects Anabolic Response

Consuming multiple, moderate-protein meals, consisting of 20-40 grams of protein each, throughout the day is recommended. Also, consuming 20-40g protein before bed is likely beneficial to support muscle recovery and favorable body composition changes.

Bonus: The Deal with High-Protein Diets

At one point, high-protein diets were thought to elicit negative health outcomes, including kidney issues. Current research suggests that there are no negative health implications in healthy individuals consuming extremely high-protein diets [1, 11, 22-25, 42, 86]. However, if you have an existing kidney issue, it may not be advisable to consume high daily quantities of protein [25-27]. Of particular importance to athletes, high-protein diets help maintain lean body mass during weight loss [2-12] and promote increases in muscle strength, muscle fiber size, and lean body mass when combined with resistance training [11-15]. Individuals routinely participating in intense exercise may require 1.5-2.0 g/kg/day, or 2-3x the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight, in order to maintain protein balance [16-21]. A brief review discussing the importance of high-protein diets during weight loss can be viewed here. In light of the aforementioned research, there is little room for argument against healthy athletes consuming a high-protein diet or, at the very least, consuming protein in quantities greater than 2 times the RDA (1.5-2.0 g/kg/day) to facilitate positive training adaptations and recovery.


ShakeBot Bottom Line

  • You need to recover to perform. Muscle protein and glycogen (i.e. stored carbohydrate) are used during exercise and if they aren’t replaced, your next performance will suffer.
  • What you consume post-exercise matters. Consume a combination of carbohydrates and protein post-exercise to optimize your athletic recovery.
  • Everyone is different. Your post-exercise nutritional needs will depend on your personal characteristics and the exercise you choose to do in any given exercise session.
  • The type of protein matters. When it comes to gaining muscle and enhancing performance, whey protein may work better than other protein types.
  • The timing of daily protein matters. Post-exercise protein is important, but you should also consider when you consume the rest of your protein throughout the day: multiple moderate-protein meals containing 20-40 grams of protein is a great strategy to start.
  • Consuming a high-protein diet will probably help you. Unless you have an existing kidney issue, high-protein diets are probably safe and effective for athletes aiming to increase muscle strength, size, and overall body composition.
  • Always consult with a qualified healthcare professional prior to making any significant changes to your diet.

Reference

  1. Antonio, J., Ellerbroek, A., Silver, T., Orris, S., Scheiner, M., Gonzalez, A. and Peacock, C.A., 2015. A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women–a follow-up investigation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), p.39.
  2. Egan, B., 2016. Protein intake for athletes and active adults: Current concepts and controversies. Nutrition Bulletin, 41(3), pp.202-213.
  3. Murphy, C.H., Hector, A.J. and Phillips, S.M., 2015. Considerations for protein intake in managing weight loss in athletes. European journalofsportscience, 15(1), pp.21-28.
  4. Sundgot-Borgen, J. and Garthe, I., 2011. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), pp.S101-S114.
  5. Krieger, J.W., Sitren, H.S., Daniels, M.J. and Langkamp-Henken, B., 2006. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 83(2), pp.260-274.
  6. Helms, E.R., Zinn, C., Rowlands, D.S. and Brown, S.R., 2014. A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes.
  7. Wycherley, T.P., Moran, L.J., Clifton, P.M., Noakes, M. and Brinkworth, G.D., 2012. Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American journal of clinical nutrition, pp.ajcn-044321.
  8. Mettler, S., Mitchell, N. and Tipton, K.D., 2010. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(2), pp.326-37.
  9. Josse, A.R., Atkinson, S.A., Tarnopolsky, M.A. and Phillips, S.M., 2011. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet-and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. The Journal of nutrition, 141(9), pp.1626-1634.
  10. Longland, T.M., Oikawa, S.Y., Mitchell, C.J., Devries, M.C. and Phillips, S.M., 2016. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 103(3), pp.738-746.
  11. Morales, F.E., Tinsley, G.M. and Gordon, P.M., 2017. Acute and Long-Term Impact of High-Protein Diets on Endocrine and Metabolic Function, Body Composition, and Exercise-Induced Adaptations. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, p.1.
  12. Escobar, K. A., Mclain, T. A., & Kerksick, C. M. (2015). Protein Applications in Sports Nutrition—Part II.Strength and Conditioning Journal, 37(3), 22-34. doi:10.1519/ssc.0000000000000138
  13. Cermak, N. M., Res, P. T., Groot, L. C., Saris, W. H., & Loon, L. J. (2012). Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(6), 1454-1464. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.037556
  14. Greenwood, M., Cooke, M. B., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D. S., & Antonio, J. (2015). Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  15. Antonio, J., Peacock, C. A., Ellerbroek, A., Fromhoff, B., & Silver, T. (2014). The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 19. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-11-19
  16. Lemon PW, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, Atkinson SA: Protein requirements and muscle mass/strength changes during intensive training in novice bodybuilders. J Appl Physiol. 1992, 73 (2): 767-75.
  17. Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, Atkinson SA: Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass. J Appl Physiol. 1988, 64 (1): 187-93.
  18. Tarnopolsky MA: Protein and physical performance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1999, 2 (6): 533-7. 10.1097/00075197-199911000-00018.
  19. Chesley A, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, Smith K: Changes in human muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992, 73 (4): 1383-8.
  20. Kreider RB: Effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on athletic performance. Sportscience. 1999, 3 (1): [http://www.sportsci.org/jour/9901/rbk.html]
  21. Kreider, R.B., Wilborn, C.D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A.L., Collins, R., Cooke, M., Earnest, C.P., Greenwood, M., Kalman, D.S. and Kerksick, C.M., 2010. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(1), p.7.
  22. Antonio, J., Ellerbroek, A., Silver, T., Vargas, L. and Peacock, C., 2016. The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition–a crossover trial in resistance-trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13(1), p.3.
  23. Antonio, J., Ellerbroek, A., Silver, T., Vargas, L., Tamayo, A., Buehn, R. and Peacock, C.A., 2016. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2016.
  24. Lugaresi, R., Leme, M., de Salles Painelli, V., Murai, I.H., Roschel, H., Sapienza, M.T., Junior, A.H.L. and Gualano, B., 2013. Does long-term creatine supplementation impair kidney function in resistance-trained individuals consuming a high-protein diet?. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), p.26.
  25. Cuenca-Sánchez, M., Navas-Carrillo, D. and Orenes-Piñero, E., 2015. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 6(3), pp.260-266.
  26. Schwingshackl, L. and Hoffmann, G., 2014. Comparison of high vs. normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 9(5), p.e97656.
  27. Juraschek, S.P., Appel, L.J., Anderson, C.A. and Miller, E.R., 2013. Effect of a high-protein diet on kidney function in healthy adults: results from the OmniHeart trial. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 61(4), pp.547-554.
  28. Cockburn, E., Bell, P.G. and Stevenson, E., 2013. Effect of milk onteamsportperformanceafter exercise-induced muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 45(8), pp.1585-1592.
  29. Cockburn, E., Hayes, P.R., French, D.N., Stevenson, E. and St Clair Gibson, A., 2008. Acute milk-based protein–CHO supplementation attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism, 33(4), pp.775-783.
  30. Cockburn, E., Robson-Ansley, P., Hayes, P.R. and Stevenson, E., 2012. Effect of volume of milk consumed on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. European journal of applied physiology, 112(9), pp.3187-3194.
  31. Cockburn, E., Stevenson, E., Hayes, P.R., Robson-Ansley, P. and Howatson, G., 2010. Effect of milk-based carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 35(3), pp.270-277.
  32. Wilkinson, S.B., Tarnopolsky, M.A., MacDonald, M.J., MacDonald, J.R., Armstrong, D. and Phillips, S.M., 2007. Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 85(4), pp.1031-1040.
  33. Ivy, J.L. and Ferguson-Stegall, L.M., 2014. Nutrient timing: the means to improved exercise performance, recovery, and training adaptation. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 8(4), pp.246-259.
  34. Potgieter, S., 2013.Sportnutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition. South African journal of clinical nutrition, 26(1), pp.6-16.
  35. Hoffman, J.R., Ratamess, N.A., Tranchina, C.P., Rashti, S.L., Kang, J. and Faigenbaum, A.D., 2009. Effect of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body-composition changes in resistance-trained men. International journalofsportnutritionand exercise metabolism, 19(2), pp.172-185.
  36. Schoenfeld, B.J., Aragon, A.A. and Krieger, J.W., 2013. The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), p.53.
  37. Tipton, K.D.andWitard, O.C., 2007. Protein requirements and recommendations for athletes: relevance of ivory tower arguments for practical recommendations. Clinics in sports medicine, 26(1), pp.17-36.
  38. Hulmi, J.J.,Lockwood,C.M.andStout, J.R., 2010. Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein. Nutrition &metabolism, 7(1), p.51.
  39. Burke, L.M., Winter, J.A., Cameron-Smith, D., Enslen, M., Farnfield, M. and Decombaz, J., 2012. Effect of intake of different dietary protein sources on plasma amino acid profiles at rest and after exercise. International journalofsportnutritionand exercise metabolism, 22(6), pp.452-462.
  40. Morton, R.W., McGlory, C. and Phillips, S.M., 2015. Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Frontiers in physiology, 6, p.245.
  41. Reidy, P.T., Walker, D.K., Dickinson, J.M., Gundermann, D.M., Drummond, M.J., Timmerman, K.L., Fry, C.S., Borack, M.S., Cope,M.B.,Mukherjea, R. and Jennings, K., 2013. Protein blend ingestion following resistance exercise promotes human muscle protein synthesis. The Journal of nutrition, 143(4), pp.410-416.
  42. Phillips, S.M., Chevalier, S. and Leidy, H.J., 2016. Protein “requirements” beyond the RDA: implications for optimizing health 1. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(5), pp.565-572.
  43. Moore, D.R., 2015. Nutrition to support recovery from endurance exercise: optimal carbohydrate and protein replacement. Current sports medicine reports, 14(4), pp.294-300.
  44. Res, P.T., Groen, B., Pennings, B., Beelen, M., Wallis, G.A., Gijsen, A.P., Senden, J.M. and Van Loon, L.J., 2012. Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(8), pp.1560-1569.
  45. Areta, J.L., Burke, L.M., Ross, M.L., Camera, D.M., West, D.W., Broad, E.M., Jeacocke, N.A., Moore, D.R., Stellingwerff, T., Phillips, S.M. and Hawley, J.A., 2013. Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. The Journalofphysiology, 591(9), pp.2319-2331.
  46. Burke, L.M., Slater, G., Broad, E.M., Haukka, J., Modulon, S. and Hopkins, W.G., 2003. Eating patterns and meal frequency of elite Australian athletes. International journalofsportnutritionand exercise metabolism, 13(4), pp.521-538.
  47. Stark, M., Lukaszuk, J.,Prawitz,A.and Salacinski, A., 2012. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), p.54.
  48. Tang, J.E., Moore, D.R., Kujbida, G.W., Tarnopolsky, M.A. and Phillips, S.M., 2009. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. Journal of applied physiology, 107(3), pp.987-992.
  49. Hartman, J.W., Tang, J.E., Wilkinson, S.B., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Lawrence, R.L., Fullerton, A.V. and Phillips, S.M., 2007. Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 86(2), pp.373-381.
  50. Phillips, S.M., Tang, J.E. and Moore, D.R., 2009. The role of milk-and soy-based protein in support of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein accretion in young and elderly persons. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 28(4), pp.343-354.
  51. Guth, L.M. and Roth, S.M., 2013. Genetic influence on athletic performance. Current opinion in pediatrics, 25(6), p.653.
  52. Alfred, T., Ben‐Shlomo, Y., Cooper, R., Hardy, R., Cooper, C., Deary, I.J., Gunnell, D., Harris, S.E., Kumari, M., Martin, R.M. and Moran, C.N., 2011. ACTN3 genotype, athletic status, and life course physical capability: Meta‐analysis of the published literature and findings from nine studies. Human mutation, 32(9), pp.1008-1018.
  53. Birrer, D. and Morgan, G., 2010. Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete’s performance in high‐intensity sports. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(s2), pp.78-87.
  54. Mahoney, M.J., Gabriel, T.J. and Perkins, T.S., 1987. Psychological skills and exceptional athletic performance.Thesportpsychologist, 1(3), pp.181-199.
  55. Durand-Bush, N. and Salmela, J.H., 2002. The development and maintenance of expert athletic performance: Perceptions of world and Olympic champions. Journal ofappliedsportpsychology, 14(3), pp.154-171.
  56. Côté, J.,Baker,J.and Abernethy, B., 2007. Practice and play in the developmentofsportexpertise. Handbookofsportpsychology, 3, pp.184-202.
  57. Phillips, E., Davids, K., Renshaw, I. and Portus, M., 2010. Expert performance in sport and the dynamics of talent development. Sports Medicine, 40(4), pp.271-283.
  58. Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R.T. and Tesch-Römer, C., 1993. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance.Psychologicalreview, 100(3), p.363.
  59. Hodges, N.J., 1995. Wrestling with the Nature of Expertise: ASportSpecific Test of Ericsson, Krampe and Tesch-Römer’s (1993) Theory of” Deliberate Practice” (Doctoral dissertation).
  60. Rodriguez, N.R., DiMarco, N.M. and Langley, S., 2009.Positionofthe American dietetic association,dietitiansofCanada, and the American college of sports medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(3), pp.509-527.
  61. Thomas, D.T.,Erdman,K.A.andBurke, L.M., 2016.Positionofthe academy of nutrition and dietetics,dietitians ofcanada, andtheamericancollegeof sports medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), pp.501-528.
  62. Saltin, B. and Gollnick, P.D., 1983. Skeletal muscle adaptability: significance for metabolism and performance. Comprehensive Physiology.
  63. Holloszy,J.O.andCoyle, E.F., 1984. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. Journal of applied physiology, 56(4), pp.831-838.
  64. Joyner,M.J.andCoyle, E.F., 2008. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. The Journalofphysiology, 586(1), pp.35-44.
  65. Fitts, R.H., 1994. Cellular mechanisms of muscle fatigue. Physiological reviews, 74(1), pp.49-94.
  66. Pilegaard, H., Ordway, G.A.,Saltin,B.and Neufer, P.D., 2000. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 279(4), pp.E806-E814.
  67. Widegren, U., Ryder, J.W. and Zierath, J.R., 2001. Mitogen‐activated protein kinase signal transduction in skeletal muscle: effects of exercise and muscle contraction. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 172(3), pp.227-238.
  68. Hawley, J.A., Tipton, K.D. and Millard-Stafford, M.L., 2006. Promoting training adaptations through nutritional interventions. Journal of sports sciences, 24(07), pp.709-721.
  69. McInerney, P., Lessard, S.J., Burke, L.M., Coffey, V.G., Giudice, S.L.L., Southgate, R.J. and Hawley, J.A., 2005. Failure to repeatedly supercompensate muscle glycogen stores in highly trained men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37(3), pp.404-411.
  70. Nicholas, C.W., Tsintzas, K.O.S.T.A.S., Boobis, L. and Williams, C., 1999. Carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion during intermittent high-intensity running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(9), pp.1280-1286.
  71. Kumar, V., Atherton, P., Smith, K. and Rennie, M.J., 2009. Human muscle protein synthesis and breakdown during and after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(6), pp.2026-2039.
  72. Phillips, S.M., Tipton, K.D., Aarsland, A.S.L.E., Wolf, S.E. and Wolfe, R.R., 1997. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. American journal of physiology-endocrinology and metabolism, 273(1), pp.E99-E107.
  73. Evans, W.J., 1995. What is sarcopenia?. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 50(Special Issue), pp.5-8.
  74. Lexell J. Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. J Gerontol A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 1995;50:11–16.
  75. Roubenoff, R. and Castaneda, C., 2001. Sarcopenia—understanding the dynamics of aging muscle. Jama, 286(10), pp.1230-1231.
  76. Morley, J.E., Argiles, J.M., Evans, W.J., Bhasin, S., Cella, D., Deutz, N.E., Doehner, W., Fearon, K.C., Ferrucci, L., Hellerstein, M.K. and Kalantar-Zadeh, K., 2010. Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 11(6), pp.391-396.
  77. Taaffe, D.R., 2006. Sarcopenia: exercise as a treatment strategy. Australian family physician, 35(3), p.130.
  78. Morley, J.E., Argiles, J.M., Evans, W.J., Bhasin, S., Cella, D., Deutz, N.E., Doehner, W., Fearon, K.C., Ferrucci, L., Hellerstein, M.K. and Kalantar-Zadeh, K., 2010. Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 11(6), pp.391-396.
  79. Fukagawa, N.K., Wolfson, L., Judge, J., Whipple, R. and King, M., 1995. Strength is a major factor in balance, gait, and the occurrence of falls. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 50(Special Issue), pp.64-67.
  80. Tinetti, M.E. and Williams, C.S., 1997. Falls, injuries due to falls, and the risk of admission to a nursing home. NewEnLandi, F., Cruz-Jentoft, A.J., Liperoti, R., Russo, A., Giovannini, S., Tosato, M., Capoluongo, E., Bernabei, R. and Onder, G., 2013. Sarcopenia and mortality risk in frail older persons aged 80 years and older: results fromilSIRENTEstudy. Ageandageing, 42(2), pp.203-209.
  81. Arango-Lopera, V.E., Arroyo, P., Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M., Perez-Zepeda, M.U. and Cesari, M., 2013. Mortality as an adverse outcome of sarcopenia. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 17(3), p.259.
  82. Bunout, D.,deLaMaza, M.P., Barrera, G., Leiva, L. and Hirsch, S., 2011. Association between sarcopenia and mortality in healthy older people. Australasian journalonageing, 30(2), pp.89-92.
  83. Mitchell, C.J., Churchward-Venne, T.A., Parise, G., Bellamy, L., Baker, S.K., Smith, K., Atherton, P.J. and Phillips, S.M., 2014. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men. PloS one, 9(2), p.e89431.
  84. Jeukendrup, A., 2014. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Medicine, 44(1), pp.25-33.
  85. Hawley, J.A. and Leckey, J.J., 2015. Carbohydrate dependence during prolonged, intense endurance exercise. Sports Medicine, 45(1), pp.5-12.
  86. Jäger, R., Kerksick, C.M., Campbell, B.I., Cribb, P.J., Wells, S.D., Skwiat, T.M., Purpura, M., Ziegenfuss, T.N., Ferrando, A.A., Arent, S.M. and Smith-Ryan, A.E., 2017. International society of sports nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), p.20.
  87. Paddon-Jones, D., Sheffield-Moore, M., Aarsland, A., Wolfe, R.R. and Ferrando, A.A., 2005. Exogenous amino acids stimulate human muscle anabolism without interfering with the response to mixed meal ingestion. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 288(4), pp.E761-E767.
  88. Kinsey, A.W. and Ormsbee, M.J., 2015. The health impact of nighttime eating: old and new perspectives. Nutrients, 7(4), pp.2648-2662.
  89. Trommelen, J. and Van Loon, L.J., 2016. Pre-sleep protein ingestion to improve the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. Nutrients, 8(12), p.763.
  90. Antonio, J., Ellerbroek, A., Peacock, C. and Silver, T., 2017. Casein protein supplementation in trained men and women: morning versus evening. International journal of exercise science, 10(3), p.479.
  91. Burk, A., Timpmann, S., Medijainen, L., Vähi, M. and Ööpik, V., 2009. Time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement stimulates an increase in fat-free body mass during resistance training in young untrained men. Nutrition research, 29(6), pp.405-413.

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s